Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2—Significant Accounting Policies
Use of estimates. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents. We consider all highly liquid instruments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash or cash equivalents. We continually monitor and evaluate our investment positions and the creditworthiness of the financial institutions with which we invest and maintain deposit accounts. When appropriate, we utilize Certificate of Deposit Account Registry Service (CDARS) to reduce banking risk for a portion of our cash in the United States. A CDAR consists of numerous individual investments, all below the FDIC limits, thus fully insuring that portion of our cash. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, we did not have a CDAR balance.
Restricted cash. Restricted cash balances consist primarily of funds on deposit with credit card and other payment processors and cash collateral with our purchasing card provider. These balances do not have the benefit of federal deposit insurance and are subject to the financial risk of the parties holding these funds. Restricted cash balances held by credit card processors are unavailable to us unless, and for a period of time after, we discontinue the use of their services. The hold back percentages are generally five percent of the monthly credit card charges that are held for six months. The cash collateral held by our charge card provider is unavailable unless we discontinue the usage of the purchasing card. Because a portion of these funds can be accessed and converted to unrestricted cash in less than one year in certain circumstances, that portion is considered a current asset.
Financial Instruments. Financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, notes receivable, accounts payable, deferred course expenses, accrued expenses, deferred revenue, and debt. GAAP requires the disclosure of the fair value of financial instruments, including assets and liabilities recognized in the balance sheets. Our only financial liabilities measured and recorded at fair value on our consolidated balance sheets on a recurring basis are the derivative financial instruments. Management believes the carrying value of the other financial instruments recognized on the consolidated balance sheets (including receivables, payables and accrued liabilities) approximate their fair value.
Inventory. Inventory consists primarily of books, videos and training materials held for sale to students enrolled in our training programs. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out method.
Deposits with credit card processors. The deposits with our credit card processors are held due to arrangements under which our credit card processors withhold credit card funds to cover charge backs in the event we are unable to honor our commitments. The deposits are six months or less rolling reserves.
Property, equipment and Impairment of long lived assets. Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as presented in the following table:
Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful asset life or the remaining term of the applicable lease.
In accordance with GAAP, we evaluate the carrying amount of our long-lived assets such as property and equipment, and finite-lived intangible assets subject to amortization for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets held and used is measured by the comparison of its carrying amount with the future net cash flows the asset is expected to generate. We look primarily to the undiscounted future cash flows in the assessment of whether or not long-lived assets have been impaired. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the estimated fair value of the asset.
Revenue recognition. We recognize revenue in accordance with FASB ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”). We recognize revenue when: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) delivery of product has occurred or services have been rendered, (iii) the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured. For product sales, these conditions are generally met upon shipment of the product to the student or completion of the sale transaction. For training and service sales, these conditions are generally met upon presentation of the training seminar or delivery of the service.
Some of our training and consulting contracts contain multiple deliverable elements that include training along with other products and services. In accordance with ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition – Multiple-Element Arrangements, sales arrangements with multiple deliverables are divided into separate units of accounting if the deliverables in the sales contract meet the following criteria: (i) the delivered training or product has value to the client on a standalone basis, (ii) there is objective and reliable evidence of the contract price of undelivered items and (iii) delivery of any undelivered item is probable. The contract price of each element is generally determined by prices charged when sold separately. In certain arrangements, we offer these products bundled together at a discount. The discount is allocated on a pro-rata basis to each element based on the relative contract price of each element when contract price support exists for each element in the arrangements. The overall contract consideration is allocated among the separate units of accounting based upon their contract prices, with the amount allocated to the delivered item being limited to the amount that is not contingent upon the delivery of additional items or meeting other specified performance conditions. Contract price of the undelivered items is based upon the normal pricing practice for our existing training programs, consulting services, and other products, which are generally the prices of the items when sold separately.
Each transaction is separated into its specific elements and revenue for each element is recognized according to the following policies:
In the normal course of business, we recognize revenue based on the customers’ attendance of the course, mentoring training, coaching session or delivery of the software, data or course materials on-line.
After a customer contract expires we record breakage revenue less a reserve for cases where we allow a customer to attend after expiration. We recognized revenue at the conclusion of the contract period of approximately $16.4 million and $14.5 million in the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Our reserve for course attendance after expiration was $1.3 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016.
We provide a limited satisfaction guarantee to our customers who purchase live onsite training. Very few customers exercise this guarantee.
Deferred revenue occurs from courses, online courses, mentorships, coaching sessions and website subscriptions and renewals in which payment is received before the service has been performed or if a customer contract expires. Deferred revenue is recognized into revenue as courses are attended in-person or on-line or coaching and mentor sessions are provided. While many of our course package contracts are two years, we consider the fulfillment of them as a current liability because a customer could complete a two-year package in one year. We do have a few products that are scheduled to last beyond one year and are accounted for as long-term deferred revenue.
Revenue amounts in our consolidated financial statements are shown net of any sales tax.
Deferred course expenses. We defer licensing fees and commissions and fees paid to our speakers and telemarketers until such time as the revenue is earned. Our speakers, who are all independent contractors, earn commissions on the cash receipts received at our training events and are paid approximately 45 days after the training event. The deferred course expenses are expensed as the corresponding deferred revenue is recognized. We also capitalize the commissions and fees paid to our speakers and expense them as the corresponding deferred revenue is recognized.
Advertising expenses. We expense advertising as incurred. Advertising paid in advance is recorded as a prepaid expense until such time as the advertisement is published. We incurred approximately $17.0 million and $16.4 million in advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, which is included in advertising and sales expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. There were no media costs prepaid and included in prepaid expenses and other current assets as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Income taxes. We account for income taxes in conformity with the requirements of ASC 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”). Per ASC 740, the provision for income taxes is calculated using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities, at enacted income tax rates, based on the temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of our assets and liabilities. We include any effects of changes in income tax rates or tax laws in the provision for income taxes in the period of enactment. When it is more likely than not that a portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized in the future, we provide a corresponding valuation allowance against the deferred tax asset.
ASC 740 also clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in a company’s financial statements and prescribes a recognition threshold of more likely than not and a measurement process for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. In making this assessment, a company must determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, based solely on the technical merits of the position and must assume that the tax position will be examined by taxing authorities. ASC 740 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, disclosures and transition.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”) was enacted on December 22, 2017 making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code. Changes include, but are not limited to, a reduction in the US federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, requiring companies to pay a one-time transition tax on earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously tax deferred and creating new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings. As of December 31, 2017, we have not completed our assessment of the accounting impact of the tax effects on the Company due to the Act; however, we have made a reasonable estimate of the effects on our existing deferred tax balances. We recognized a provisional estimate of $0.1 million of tax expense related to the remeasurement of our deferred tax balance. We will continue to refine our estimate as additional analysis is completed and additional guidance is issued, however we don’t expect a significant net impact on our underlying financial statements as we have cumulative losses in our foreign subsidiaries.
Foreign currency translation. We account for foreign currency translation in accordance with ASC 830, Foreign Currency Translation. The functional currencies of the Company’s foreign operations are the reported local currencies. Translation adjustments result from translating our foreign subsidiaries’ financial statements into United States dollars. The balance sheet accounts of our foreign subsidiaries are translated into United States dollars using the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date. Revenue and expenses are translated using average exchange rates for each month during the fiscal year. The resulting translation gains or losses are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ deficit. Business is generally transacted in a single currency not requiring meaningful currency transaction costs. We do not practice hedging as the risks do not warrant the costs.
Share-based compensation. We account for share-based awards under the provisions of ASC 718, “Compensation—Stock Compensation.” Accordingly, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and we expense these costs using the straight-line method over the requisite service period. Share-based compensation expense was $0.2 million and $0.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. See Note 6 - Share-Based Compensation, for additional disclosures regarding our share-based compensation.
Comprehensive income. Comprehensive income includes changes to equity accounts that were not the result of transactions with stockholders. Comprehensive income is comprised of net income and other comprehensive income items. Our comprehensive income generally consists of changes in the cumulative foreign currency translation adjustment.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements. We have implemented all new accounting pronouncements that are in effect and that management believes would materially impact our financial statements.
In July 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-11, I “Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments With Down Round Features” and II “Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests With a Scope Exception”. This standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect that the adoption of this standard will have on our financial statements and expect to adopt this standard when effective.
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-01, “Business Combinations,” which clarifies the definition of a Business and improves the guidance for determining whether a transaction involves the purchase or disposal of a business or an asset. This standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and should be applied prospectively on or after the effective date. Early adoption is permitted only for the transactions that have not been reported in financial statements that have been issued or made available for issuance. We expect to adopt this standard when effective, and do not expect this guidance to have a significant impact on our financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash,” which provides guidance about the presentation of changes in restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. This standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and will be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. Early adoption was permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect that the adoption of this standard will have on our financial statements and expect to adopt this standard when effective.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, “Income Taxes: Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory,” which removes the prohibition against the immediate recognition of the current and deferred income tax effects of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. This standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and will be applied using a modified retrospective basis. Early adoption was permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect that the adoption of this standard will have on our financial statements and expect to adopt this standard when effective.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows: Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments”. This ASU provides guidance and clarification in regards to the classification of eight types of receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows, including debt repayment or extinguishment costs, settlement of zero-coupon bonds, proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims, distributions received from equity method investees and cash receipts from beneficial interest in securitization transactions. This standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and will be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. Early adoption is permitted. We expect to adopt this standard when effective, and do not expect this guidance to have a significant impact on our financial statements.
In March 2016, FASB issued ASU No 2016-09 “Compensation – Stock compensation”. The new guidance is intended to simplify some provisions in stock compensation accounting, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification in the statement of cash flows. This standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption was permitted. We adopted this standard effective January 1, 2017. The adoption of this guidance did not have a significant impact on our financial statements. As permitted by the standard, we will account for forfeitures of share-based payments when they occur.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No 2016-02 “Leases”. The standard requires companies that lease valuable assets like aircraft, real estate, and heavy equipment to recognize on their balance sheets the assets and liabilities generated by contracts longer than a year. The standard also requires companies to disclose in the footnotes to their financial statements information about the amount, timing, and uncertainty for the payments they make for the lease agreements. This standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We expect to adopt this standard when effective, and the impact on our financial statements is not currently estimable.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No 2016-01, “Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities”. The new guidance is intended to improve the recognition and measurement of financial instruments. This guidance requires that financial assets and financial liabilities must be separately presented by measurement category and form of financial asset on the balance sheet or the accompanying notes to the financial statements. This guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The standard includes a requirement that businesses must report changes in the fair value of their own liabilities in other comprehensive income instead of earnings, and this is the only provision of the update for which the FASB is permitting early adoption. We expect to adopt this guidance when effective, and do not expect this guidance to have a significant impact on our financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No 2015-11, “Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory,” to simplify the measurement of inventory measured using the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) or average cost method. This guidance requires entities to measure inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. This guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016 with prospective application. Early adoption was permitted when applying the amendments and switching to the new accounting at the beginning of the reporting period in which the amendments are adopted. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2017, and there is no impact on our financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” The standard is a comprehensive new revenue recognition model that requires revenue to be recognized in a manner to depict the transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. In August 2015, the FASB delayed the effective date of its revenue recognition standard to be effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The standard allows companies to choose either full retrospective or modified retrospective adoption method. We expect to adopt this guidance when effective using modified retrospective adoption method. We have reviewed the accounting for training and service sales, and for product sales, and based on our finalized review results, we do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a significant impact on our financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef